Shanghai Metro Extension

Location Shanghai, China Project name Study of Shanghai Metro Extension Project type Tunnel (TBM)

We were engaged to optimise a traditional rebar cage reinforced concrete segmental lining by means of finite element analysis (FEA) using macro synthetic fibres for the Shanghai metro extension. The aim of this study was to reduce or entirely replace the original steel reinforcement of the segmental lining, in order to make the precast production process faster and more economic. The outer diameter of the tunnel was 6200 mm, the thickness of the segments was 350 mm.


The numerical calculations were performed by Atena Finite Element software, which is based on the combination of Menétrey-William and Rankine failure surfaces on the compression and tension sides respectively. The effect of the macro synthetic fibres was modelled as tension stiffening on the tension surface.


A one-to-one full scale model of an assembled tunnel ring using the original reinforcement cages was tested at Tongji University in Shanghai, July 2013. The ring was tested to differing load levels where load and displacement were measured until failure. The author’s first step was to calculate the real displacement characteristics of the original reinforced concrete (RC) ring, then calculate the numerically modelled version, so as to compare them. The material parameters of the concrete and rebar used had been determined through basic material tests conducted at the Tongji University.